There are four types of Diabetes mellitus.



Gestational Diabetes mellitus (GDM) is defined as any degree of glucose intolerance, with the onset of pregnancy. Women who develop Type –1 diabetes mellitus during pregnancy and women with undiagnosed a symptomatic type –2 diabetes mellitus that is discovered Gestational Diabetes Mellitus. Women with diabetes mellitus before pregnancy are said to have “Pregestational Diabetes”. Many women who have developed gestational diabetes may have controlled glucose level during the first half of the pregnancy and develop insulin deficiency during the latter half of the pregnancy, leading to hyper-glycaemia.

Gestational Diabetes Mellitus is a complication in approximately 4% of all pregnancies in the United States. Mother with Gestational diabetes mellitus have increased rate of caesarian delivery and chronic hypertension “High blood Glucose levels in early pregnancy may deprive the embryo of oxygen and lead to Birth Defects, especially of the heart and spinal cord. Maintaining blood glucose control continues to be important throughout the pregnancy, but it is particularly important during the first eight weeks, when an embryo’s organs are farming.

To diagnose GDM, a 50 gm glucose-screening test should be performed at 24-28 weeks of gestation known as Glucose Tolerance Test (GTT). By them, the placenta begins to make the hormones that lead to insulin resistance. The screening test measures the blood sugar response to glucose consumed in a drink. Untreated gestational diabetes can lead to problems for both the mother and the child. It can lead to Fat baby syndrome or Microsomatia, in which the baby’s body produces extra fat.